Some people think that the notion of classes is intrinsic to object-oriented programming. Bertrand Meyer even wrote a textbook about OOP called A Touch of Class. But back in the 1980s, Alan Borning and others were trying to teach object-oriented programming using the Smalltalk system, ostensibly designed to make simulation in computer programmers accessible to children. What they found was that classes are hard.
You’re not allowed to think about how your thing works before you’ve gone a level of abstraction up and told the computer all about the essence of thing-ness, what it is that’s common to all things and sets them apart from other ideas. And while you’re at it, you could well need to think about the metaclass, the essence of essence-of-thing-ness.
So Borning asked the reasonable question: why not just get rid of classes?. Rather than say what all things are like, let me describe the thing I want to think about.
But what happens when I need a different thing? Two options present themselves: both represent the idea that this thing is like that thing, except for some specific properties. One option is that I just create a clone of the first object. I now have two identical things, I make the changes that distinguish the second from the first, and now I can use my two, distinct things.
The disadvantage of that is that there’s no link between those two objects, so I have nowhere to put any shared behaviour. Imagine that I’m writing the HR software for a Silicon Valley startup. Initially there’s just one employee, the founder, and rather than think about the concept of Employee-ness and create the class of all employees, I just represent the founder as an object and get on with writing the application. Now the company hires a second employee, and being a Silicon Valley startup they hire someone who’s almost identical to the founder with just a couple of differences. Rather than duplicating the founder and changing the relevant properties, I create a new object that just contains the specific attributes that make this employee different, and link it to the founder object by saying that the founder is the prototype of the other employee.
Any message received by employee #2, if not understood, is delegated to the original employee, the founder. Later, I add a new feature to the Silicon Valley HR application: an employee can issue a statement apologising if anybody got offended. By putting this feature on the first employee, the other employee(s) also get that behaviour.