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Why we don’t trust -retainCount

I’m pretty sure @bbum must have worn through a few keyboards telling users of StackOverflow not to rely on the value of an Objective-C object’s -retainCount. Why? When we create an object, it has a retain count of 1, right? Retains (and, for immutable objects, copies) bump that up, releases (and, some time later, autoreleases) bring it down, right? If an attempt to release would bring the retain count to 0, that object gets released, right? Right?!?

Well, that’s not true for all objects, but leaving that aside, your code isn’t the only code running in your process. The system libraries along with any third-party code you’ve included in your app are all doing things, including retaining and releasing objects. Let’s take a look at a specific case of that.

The code in this post is from Gnustep-base, the LGPL implementation of OpenStep’s Foundation library. The behaviour shown is identical to behaviour in Apple’s Foundation. Here’s (most of) +[NSNumber initialize].

 * Numbers from -1 to 12 inclusive that are reused.
static NSNumber *ReusedInstances[14];
static NSBoolNumber *boolY;		// Boolean YES (integer 1)
static NSBoolNumber *boolN;		// Boolean NO (integer 0)

+ (void) initialize
  int i;

  if ([NSNumber class] != self)

  // ...

  boolY = NSAllocateObject (NSBoolNumberClass, 0, 0);
  boolY->value = 1;
  boolN = NSAllocateObject (NSBoolNumberClass, 0, 0);
  boolN->value = 0;

  for (i = 0; i < 14; i++)
      NSIntNumber *n = NSAllocateObject (NSIntNumberClass, 0, 0);

      n->value = i - 1;
      ReusedInstances[i] = n;

We see that sixteen instances of NSNumber subclasses, representing YES, NO and the integers -1 to 12, have been allocated and stored away in static variables. What’s that about? Well here’s (most of) +numberWithInt:.

 * Macro for checking whether this value is the same as one of the singleton
 * instances.  
#define CHECK_SINGLETON(aValue) \
if (aValue >= -1 && aValue <= 12)\
  return ReusedInstances[aValue+1];\

// ...

+ (NSNumber *) numberWithInt: (int)aValue
  NSIntNumber *n;

  if (self != NSNumberClass)
      return [[[self alloc] initWithBytes: (const void *)&aValue
        objCType: @encode(int)] autorelease];

  n = NSAllocateObject (NSIntNumberClass, 0, 0);
  n->value = aValue;
  return AUTORELEASE(n);

So it looks like the retain count of an object you get back from +numberWithInt: depends on the value you pass, and whether anyone else is trying to use a number with the same value right now.

In other words, while it’s easy to get an object’s retain count using the -retainCount method, the number you expect to see may well be wrong. The real value depends on so many parameters that it’s reasonable to conclude that you don’t know what it’s expected to be right now, so don’t depend on it.

By the way, the NSNumber implementation is a great place to find out more about how Foundation is built. It’s a class cluster (which is why you can see NSIntNumber and NSBoolNumber classes), and you can see how to use marker pointers to encode the value of an NSNumber right into the object pointer.